Biometric Identity Verification Using On-Line & Off-Line Signature Verification
Biometrics is the utilization of biological characteristics (face, iris, fingerprint) or behavioral traits (signature, voice) for identity verification of an individual. Biometric authentication is gaining popularity as a more trustable alternative to password-based security systems as it is relatively hard to be forgotten, stolen, or guessed.
Signature is a behavioral biometric: it is not based on the physical properties, such as fingerprint or face, of the individual, but behavioral ones. As such, one's signature may change over time and it is not nearly as unique or difficult to forge as iris patterns or fingerprints, however signature's widespread acceptance by the public, make it more suitable for certain lower-security authentication needs. Signature verification is split into two according to the available data in the input. Off-line signature verification takes as input the image of a signature and is useful in automatic verification of signatures found on bank checks and documents. On-line signature verification uses signatures that are captured by pressure-sensitive tablets and could be used in real time applications like credit card transactions or resource accesses.
In this work we present two complete systems for on-line and off-line signature verification. During registration to either of the systems the user has to submit a number of reference signatures which are cross aligned to extract statistics describing the variation in the user's signatures. Both systems have similar verification methodology and differ only in data acquisition and feature extraction modules. A test signature's authenticity is established by first aligning it with each reference signature of the claimed user, resulting in a number of dissimilarity scores: distances to nearest, farthest and template reference signatures. In previous systems, only one of these distances, typically the distance to the nearest reference signature or the distance to a template signature, was chosen, in an ad-hoc manner, to classify the signature as genuine or forgery. Here we propose a method to utilize all of these distances, treating them as features in a two-class classification problem, using standard pattern classification techniques. The distances are first normalized, resulting in a three dimensional space where genuine and forgery signature distributions are well separated. We experimented with the Bayes classifier, Support Vector Machines, and a linear classifier used in conjunction with Principal Component Analysis, to classify a given signature into one of the two classes (forgery or genuine).
Test data sets of 620 on-line and 100 off-line signatures were constructed to evaluate performances of the two systems. Since it is very difficult to obtain real forgeries, we obtained skilled forgeries which are supplied by forgers who had access to signature data to practice before forging. The online system has a 1.4% error in rejecting forgeries, while rejecting only 1.3% of genuine signatures. As an offline signature is easier to forge, the offline system's performance is lower: a 25% error in rejecting forgery signatures and 20% error in rejecting genuine signatures. The results for the online system show significant improvement over the state-of-the-art results, and the results for the offline system are comparable with the performance of experienced human examiners.