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Machine Learning Systems for Detecting Driver Drowsiness
Authors: Esra Vural, Müjdat Çetin, Aytül Erçil, Gwen Littlewort, Marian Bartlett, and Javier Movellan
Published in: Biennial on DSP for in-Vehicle and Mobile Systems, Istanbul, Turkey, June 2007
Publication year: 2007
Abstract: The advance of computing technology has provided the means for building intelligent vehicle systems. Drowsy driver detection system is one of the potential applications of intelligent vehicle systems. Previous approaches to drowsiness detection primarily make pre-assumptions about the relevant behavior, focusing on blink rate, eye closure, and yawning. Here we employ machine learning to data-mine actual human behavior during drowsiness episodes. Automatic classifiers for 30 facial actions from the Facial Action Coding system were developed using machine learning on a separate database of spontaneous expressions. These facial actions include blinking and yawn motions, as well as a number of other facial movements. In addition, head motion was collected through automatic eye tracking and an accelerometer. These measures were passed to learningbased classifiers such as Adaboost and multinomial ridge regression. The system was able to predict sleep and crash episodes during a driving computer game with 96% accuracy within subjects and above 90% accuracy across subjects. This is the highest prediction rate reported to date for detecting real drowsiness. Moreover, the analysis revealed new information about human behavior during drowsy driving.
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